# DSL 2¶

Nextflow implements an experimental syntax that implements new features and enhancements that simplifies the implementation of data analysis applications.

To enable this feature you need to defined the following directive at the beginning of your workflow script:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2


Warning

THIS IS AN EXPERIMENT FEATURE UNDER DEVELOPMENT. SYNTAX MAY CHANGE IN FUTURE RELEASE.

## Function¶

Nextflow allows the definition of custom function in the workflow script using the following syntax:

def <function name> ( arg1, arg, .. ) {
<function body>
}


For example:

def foo() {
'Hello world'
}

def bar(alpha, omega) {
alpha + omega
}


The above snippet defines two simple functions, that can be invoked in the workflow script as foo() which returns the Hello world string and bar(10,20) which return the sum of two parameters.

Tip

Functions implicitly return the result of the function last evaluated statement.

The keyword return can be used to explicitly exit from a function returning the specified value. for example:

def fib( x ) {
if( x <= 1 )
return x
else
fib(x-1) + fib(x-2)
}


## Process¶

### Process definition¶

The new DSL separates the definition of a process by its invocation. The process definition follows the usual for syntax as described in the process documentation. The only difference is that the from and into channel declaration has to be omitted.

Then processes can be invoked as a function, passing the expected input channels as parameters.

For example:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2

process foo {
output:
file 'foo.txt'
script:
"""
your_command > foo.txt
"""
}

process bar {
input:
file x
output:
file 'bar.txt'
script:
"""
your_command > bar.txt
"""
}

data = Channel.fromPath('/some/path/*.txt')
foo()
bar(data)


### Process composition¶

Processes having matching input-output declaration can be composed so that the output of the first process is passed as input to the following process. Take in consideration the previous process definition, it's possible to write the following:

foo(bar())


### Process outputs¶

A process output can also be accessed using the output attribute for the respective process object. For example:

foo()
bar( foo.output )
bar.output.println()


When a process defines two or more output channels, each of them can be accessed using the array element operator e.g. output[0], etc or using the first, second, etc sub-properties e.g. output.first.

## Modules¶

The new DSL allows the definition module scripts that can be included and shared across workflow applications.

A module can contain the definition of function, process and workflow definitions as described above.

### Modules include¶

A module script can be included from another Nextflow script using the include keyword. Then it's possible to reference of components (eg. functions, processes and workflow ) defined in the module from the importing script.

For example:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2
include 'modules/libx'

data = Channel.fromPath('/some/data/*.txt')
my_pipeline(data)


Nextflow implicitly looks for the module script modules/libx.nf resolving the path against the main script location.

### Selective inclusion¶

The module inclusion implicitly imports all the components defined in the module script. It's possible to selective include only a specific component by its name using the inclusion extended syntax as shown below:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2
include my_pipeline from 'modules/libx'

data = Channel.fromPath('/some/data/*.txt')
my_pipeline(data)


The module component can be included using a name alias as shown below:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2
include my_pipeline as my_tool from 'modules/libx'

data = Channel.fromPath('/some/data/*.txt')
my_tool(data)


### Module aliases¶

When including a module component it's possible to specify a name alias. This allows the import and the invocation of the same component multiple times in your script using different names. For example:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2

include foo from 'modules/my-library'
include for as bar from 'modules/my-library'

foo(some_data)
bar(other_data)


### Module parameters¶

A module script can define one or more parameters as any other Nextflow script.:

params.foo = 'hello'
params.bar = 'world'

def sayHello() {
"$params.foo$params.bar"
}


Then, parameters can be specified when the module is imported with the include statement:

nextflow.preview.dsl=2

include 'modules/library.nf' params(foo: 'Hola', bar: 'mundo')


## Channel forking¶

Using the new DSL Nextflow channels are automatically forked when connecting two or more consumers. This means that, for example, a process output can be used by two or more processes without the need to fork them using the into operator, making the writing of workflow script much fluent and readable.

## Pipes¶

Nextflow processes and operators can be composed using the | pipe operator. For example:

process foo {
input: val data
output: val result
exec:
result = "$data mundo" } Channel.from('Hello','world') | foo  The above snippet defines a process named foo then invoke it passing the content of the data channel. The & and operator allow the feed of two or more processes with the content of the same channel e.g.: process foo { input: val data output: val result exec: result = "$data mundo"
}

process bar {
input: val data
output: val result
exec:
result = data.toUpperCase()
}

Channel.from('Hello') | map { it.reverse() } | (foo & bar)


## Deprecated methods and operators¶

The following methods are not allowed any more when using Nextflow DSL 2: